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The Startling Truth About Fodder That NO ONE is Talking About

Fodder is making a come back but is it really a wise time investment and does it really save money on feed? 2 pounds of seed grows to 12 pounds of fodder, but did you know that it actually LOSES the most important aspect that animals need in feed? Find out why and how…

Fodder and growing sprouts for livestock. Does it really save time and money?

I was going to grow fodder for my animals. (Do you hear the stubbornness behind that statement?)

I had read all the articles and I was ready.

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I had even made my fodder shelving and bought these awesome durable, heavy seedling trays. I was ready.

Fodder system set up with 24 trays using PVC pipe as the shelving

This was my setup ↑

Fodder Insights and Information

And then I decided to do a bit more research. I’m really good at jumping in and just doing something and then later wondering what in the world I was thinking. Are you like me in that regard? I hope not!

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But I knew that there were three very specific things that had to happen if I was going to grow fodder for my animals:

  1. It had to lower the feed bill considerably
  2. Not add a crazy amount of time and work into my day
  3. And of course, I want my animals to have a boost in their health

In other words? It had to be worth it.

Worth the time investment and not be a detriment to our pocketbook. If you are already raising livestock, you already know this: animals are not cheap. And at every turn, we are looking for ways to raise healthy animals and save some money.

Who did I turn to for my information? I knew that I had to go deeper than the average blog post. I wanted to know really what was going on with feeding fodder and one of my first goals was to be able to create a calculator for myself (and you) to be able to use to calculate how much grain in pounds it would take to grow enough fodder in weight for the specific amount of animals that were owned.

Other Available Calculators:
If you are interested in earning an income with your chickens, check this out: Chicken Rich

 

Seemed easy enough.

So I reached out to Montana State University and found a very helpful and informative professor under the title: Extension Forage Specialist, Department of Animal and Range Sciences.

And I asked a lot of questions.

Definition of Fodder

But first, let’s begin with what these words even mean.

The definition of fodder according to Merriam Webster is this: “something fed to domestic animals, especially: coarse food for cattle, horses, goats or sheep.”

Very specifically speaking, “fodder” is the food that is fed to an animal by its owner, as opposed to “forage”. Forage is the food that an animal will find for itself in a designated pasture or area of grazing.

More recently there has been a resurgence of interest in sprouted grains, also now known as fodder. Usually, the grains are sprouted to about 6 inches tall, which will take approximately 6-10 days.

The week-old sprouts are fed to the animal in their entirety. Meaning, the leaves (grass), roots, and any remaining seeds that didn’t sprout are all fed to the animal and eaten. No dirt is involved. In this quick turnover of seed to grass, there is no need for dirt and the roots become a heavy mass that is rolled up and toted out to the animals.

Barley grain is a great grain to be used for goats and it can be used for fodder

How to Grow Fodder

Generally speaking, it is fairly easy to grow fodder. One article says that it is “practically effortless” to grow sprouted grains.

As a quick overview, here are the steps that people take to grow fodder to 6 inches:

  1. Clean the seed, if it wasn’t pre-cleaned before purchase
  2. Soak the seed for at least 12 hours and up to 24 hours
  3. Lay the seed out in trays no deeper than 1/2 an inch (these trays are so durable and strong! I couldn’t be happier with this purchase!)
  4. The seeds should be wet down with water 2-3 times a day and drained well each time. No standing water should be left in the trays.
  5. Do step number 4 until the growth has reached 6 inches. This will usually take between 6-10 days depending on the heat in the room and the amounts of water used for each watering.
  6. Harvest! Dump out the fodder (it’s heavy!) and either roll up or cut it up into manageable pieces.
  7. Feed to livestock.
  8. Clean and disinfect trays immediately and very, very well after each use.
  9. Repeat each day. Every day a tray is taken out, one replaces it making this a continual cycle of growing and harvesting.

Fodder systems can be as easy as setting a small container on the windowsill and they can also be set up to be completely automated after the seeds are in the trays. Some systems can be connected to a water source where the water is reused and pumped to rinse the seeds throughout the day automatically, which helps lessen the time spent manually rinsing several times a day.

Benefits of Sprouted Fodder?

Any article about sprouted fodder will give a very impressive list of benefits. And who wouldn’t want these benefits for their animals?

This list is found on many websites touting the benefits of growing sprouted seeds:

  • Water use reduction and conservation compared to field irrigation
  • Reduction in overall daily feed costs.
  • Significant reduction of feed waste – the entire root mass is consumed with the grass
  • Increased nutritional value in the feed
  • High yield in a very small area
  • Increase your independence by growing food for your animals with no need for cultivated land
  • High digestibility
  • Vitamins & mineral saturation
  • Phytate reduction for pH normalization
  • Enzymatic activity increase
  • Increases in Omega 3, amino acids, natural hormones
  • Hedge the increase in feed costs by pre-buying large quantities of grain to have on hand
  • On-demand availability of fresh green feed 365 days a year – all-season access.

~Source

But this impressive list isn’t the beginning or end of this discussion. There’s more. A lot more.

Let’s explore if the grass is really greener on the other side…

Goat looking through fence to the fodder on the other side

The True cost of Sprouted Grains

In my research, I found that when talking to people who know what they are talking about in regards to animal nutrition, a lot of the wording and technical aspects of the conversation can quickly go over my head.

This subject about nutrition and the bioavailability of starches, sugars, and the makeup of grains, and hay can get deep and complicated very quickly. Not only can grains and grasses grown in different pastures and parts of the country have completely different nutritional content, but when, where, and how they were harvested also affects the outcome of the feed as well. And all grains are not equal either. Depending on dirt health, harvesting, age, and how long they were sprouted all change the outcome of what ends up being fed to an animal.

So in short, to say that my hay quality and nutritional makeup are exactly equal to your hay is impossible. This would also mean that my barley grain and the sprouts I produce, could not be said to be equal (or better or worse) without testing the specific grains used and the final fodder product.

Is this getting heavy? I hope not!

Because this is where the whole fodder conversation gets blown out of the water.

The Truth About Fodder

Well known or not, animal rations must be calculated and fed on a DRY MATTER basis only. This is so important, I must say it again: Animals MUST BE fed on a DRY MATTER basis only. 

If you’ve done any research on fodder, one key phrase may have caught your attention: “1 pound of grain turns into 6 pounds of fodder!”

And what did you think? Like me possibly? “Wow! That’s amazing! How else can you multiply feed like that??”

But it’s a very deceiving claim.

Why? Because of the dry matter.

If you have lugged around a mat of fodder, you know how heavy it is! Incredibly heavy! And all that weight is moisture.

In fact, fodder is made up of about 80%+ moisture content compared to the 15% moisture found in hay.

This is the reality of fodder:

2 pounds of grain (1.9 lbs dry matter), which has approximately 95% dry matter (DM), grows into “grass” in 6-10 days, which weighs at this point 12 pounds and has 10% dry matter (DM).

2 pounds of grain=95% dry matter

2 lbs of grain → 12 lbs of fodder

12 pounds of fodder=10% dry matter

So what has the dry weight of the fodder become at this point?

In terms of dry matter the equation will look like this:

1.9 lbs of dry matter grain = .9-1.2 lbs of dry matter fodder

Wait, what?? The fodder has actually LOST dry matter. For every 2 pounds of starting seed, it will, in fact, have lost almost a pound of dry matter!

And why does this matter again? Because animals are fed on a dry-weight basis.

And when you are crunching numbers as I do continually, losing feed is not an option and if it happens, it is very costly and can be detrimental to the bottom line.

But how does this happen? What is going on inside the seed to lose dry matter?

The Reason Behind the Loss of Dry Matter in Fodder

When a seed is growing into a plant, it uses up its stored carbohydrates. This stored starch is used up during the first week of life. Usually, at this point photosynthesis takes over, roots develop and the plant can begin to uptake minerals. But in the case of hydroponic systems, dry matter and carbon are being used up during the 10-14 days of growth, which leads to the loss of dry matter.

So, the longer the sprouts are growing to reach the desired “6 inches of growth”, the more dry matter they are losing.

What About the Previously Mentioned Nutritional Quality Improvements?

Sadly (because I really like the idea of growing fodder) there isn’t any valid research backing up the nutritional quality improvements.

Now do animals usually love the fodder? Oh yes, they do! Chickens might knock you down to get to their fodder treats! The fresh, moisture-filled product is very palatable and pleasing to most animals.

But the reality is that the research done on the nutrition of fodder shows that not only is there a loss of dry matter but the “true protein decreased, and the non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolic energy, and in-vitro gas production decreased in sprouted barley compared with the raw seed.” ~Source

What does this mean for the fodder product? It has lost energy and has actually lost feed value when it is compared to the original seeds themselves. Those barley seeds? Their feed value is at least as good, if not superior, to the fodder.

If you do decide to grow fodder, studies have shown that growing fodder to day four will have the least amount of dry matter loss and will have the best digestibility. Growing past day four will show a significant loss in dry matter, energy, and digestibility. ~Source

Another factor that I hadn’t considered was this: “Thomas and Reddy (1962, Michigan State University) compared 8-day sprouted oats against whole or crimped oat grain when fed to dairy heifers. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, and energy were significantly higher on the processed grain diet than on the sprouted oat diet. Daily urine production increased from 4 liters on the control diet to 13 liters per day on the sprouted oats diet. Bedding needs would increase significantly to keep cattle clean and dry on the sprouted oat diet.” ~Source (Mentioned way down in the comments)

Cow eating grass fodder

When Does It Make Sense to Sprout Grains?

Does this mean that it never makes sense to grow fodder? No, not necessarily.

Here are a few times when it makes sense to grow fodder:

  1. Low to no sources of quality hay
  2. A desire to be more self-sufficient while not owning land to hay
  3. Small animal treats. Chickens and rabbits will love the treat!
  4. Wanting to provide a varied diet

If you fall into one of those categories, great! But don’t forget to count the cost first. This will not be something that will save time, money, or feed.

What Are Some Cons and Challenges of Growing Fodder?

This was another important factor that I had to consider, despite my adamant desire to grow fodder for my animals. I wasn’t going to just grow a batch here and there of fodder. My original plan was to use fodder to supplement much of the hay we had to harvest and stack each year for my animals.

But I had to ask the hard questions.  How much time would I have to devote a day to growing fodder? What are some of the challenges that come up and cause problems?

Are you like me? Lots of animals, young kids, a busy life…

I am looking for ways to simplify and improve. So what challenges come up for those growing fodder?

  1. The nutrient quality is solely and only dependent on the quality of the seed bought because only water causes it to grow. Low nutrient grain? Low nutrient fodder.
  2. Mold. That rich, brown dirt out your window? It has wonderful microbes that keep pathogens at bay. In a hydroponic system, mold, mildew, and other pathogens can quickly spiral out of control if the proper temperatures and humidity levels get out of control. And a moldy batch of fodder cannot be fed to animals, which is another potential loss.
  3. A controlled climate is needed to keep temperatures and humidity at appropriate levels.
  4. Time spent cleaning the seed (if it wasn’t pre-cleaned), soaking the seed, laying out the seed, watering (if an automatic system isn’t set up), cleaning the trays (to prevent mold), and feeding the fodder, can add a significant amount of time to chores.
  5. It’s an everyday, not miss-a-day type of system. No time off for you or the fodder.
  6. It is very wet and heavy and can become a challenge to transport.
  7. Depending on who you talk to, some found that their animals decreased milk production. ~Source
  8. Bulk feed storage can sometimes be a limiting and challenging factor.
  9. Electricity and a water source are needed and depending on the setup location, that can cause challenges.

But where there is a will, there is a way. Sometimes challenges can be mastered and if your heart won’t be content until fodder is made available for your animals, don’t let these reasons stop you!

The conclusion of Growing Fodder for Livestock

There is absolutely nothing wrong with growing fodder for your animals. Many people have jumped on the idea of growing sprouted grains. It feels like something you “should” do, right?

But if you are looking for ways to save time, money, and feed, this probably isn’t the solution you are looking for. No matter which way the equation is looked at, sprouted feeds are:

  • More time consuming
  • Less dry weight
  • Less nutrient-dense than hailed
  • Taking up space in the house, greenhouse, or garage
  • Probably not going to save any money or feed

But I gotta tell you, I want fodder to be all that and a slice of bread, I really do. But the facts cannot be overlooked just because the internet says so in a handful of places or because I want them to.

Fodder has made a resurgence but it’s worth looking into the facts a little more deeply, isn’t it?

The grass just may not be greener on the other side after all.

If you would like further reading, this is an awesome source and the one article that got me to really start thinking about the reality of fodder: Hydroponic Forage

This article was written in 2013 and talks about the experience of several people using fodder. It would be interesting to hear the update, the verdict was still out on their profitability and its effectiveness: A Revolution in Animal Feed?

 

Shahid

Saturday 3rd of July 2021

Wow I never think on this way thanks for opening my eyes.

Dawn

Tuesday 23rd of February 2021

You might take a look at this short study. Here's the leading sentence: "During March 2012, a sheep farmer agreed to run a trial on his lambs using mats of fresh sprouted barley fodder produced with a Fodder Solutions system, to replace a portion of his concentrate ration. When the farmer was happy that the system was running consistently, and the sheep were familiar with the feed, he split a group of them off from the herd in order to feed them separately, and monitor their performance." Here's the link: http://www.hydroponiceurope.net/.cm4all/iproc.php/Simply%20UK%20Sheep%20Trial.pdf?cdp=a

pac

Sunday 4th of October 2020

Hi I think you've misunderstood the use of fodder, because this was intended to reduce the cost of grain and not as susbsitution of hay, in fact the fodder cannot be solely used to feed animals, especially ruminants, as it only gives them the protein part, so even if you use fodder you really need to give them their carbohydrates ration in form of hay or straw (in case of ruminants) to balance their diet and for the rumen.

Talking about DM, that doesn't work when comparing with fodder because it would be like comparing pears with apples.. the reality is that about 2 pounds of grain will usually convert into 12-20pds of fodder (depending on seed and growing conditions) and more less 4pds of fodder gives you the same as 2pds of grain in terms of protein&nutrients; so for example if you have milking goats, instead of feeding 1 goat with 2pds of grain, you can feed between 3-5 which is a huge difference...

This is something that has been used for many many years from small farmers with few means in south America and if you research you'll find how fodder has been an absolute game changer for these small farmers in terms of economy and profitability. In fact there's a lot of research done in south America about fodder and how milking cows not only have improved the productivity of milk around 20%, but it has really improved their health, as ruminants are not made to eat grain, and also their fertility rate...

And by the way, not only fodder really improves the profitability of farms and the health of animals (compared to those fed with grain) but we are not even mentioning the amount of land (and therefore money) and work that farmers save if they had to produce the same amount of feed with just grain.. and off course we are not even mentioning the ecological diffrence from one to another, as acctually one of the biggest problems with our planet's health is the amount of land used to produce grain for animals as it destructs the natural ecosystems and the fertility of Earth... it's absolutely crazy to think that you can feed the animals of a farm with just a few square feet instead of needing acres and acres...

Now if you think about all that, tell me it's not time saving and economical worth...

Marla

Saturday 19th of September 2020

Hello, I enjoyed the article and everyone's comments. It seems that no one has mentioned anything about fermented grains. I soak my grains in water and wait (one to 2 days) before feeding them to my chickens. The grains sit in the water fermenting a bit more every day. The chickens love it. It doesn't take much extra time to do. I am told that it makes nutrients more available as well as the seed easier to digest. In addition, you get probiotics that are very beneficial. Does anyone have additional information regarding this kind of feed? This is one article I read explaining how to do it: https://homesteadandchill.com/fermented-chicken-feed/

Kirsty

Monday 31st of August 2020

I am after growing fodder for my rabbitry. You're article was very helpful in terms of what actual benefits Fodder have. I am still wanting to give Fodder a go since the new starin of Calici being around I no longer feed my rabbits hay in fear that they would have an increased chance of catching RHDV2. I did increase their chaff to compensate somewhat. Although I realize it is essentially the same thing, I hope that being steam cut and sitting in bags will offer some protection then hay straight from the paddock sitting in a shed with mice, rats, cats etc climbing on it. Hoping Fodder will help aid in the loss of actual hay to their diet. From my reasoning and your article I can assume Fodder is still worth while for my rabbits since the removal of Hay. Hopefully in Aus they will eventually let us have an updated vaccine and then I can go back to hay aswell as fresh pic from the side of the rd. Until then I think i'll give Fodder a go. Thankyou for your article. It gave a good insight to some things I was wondering